The Crossroads site has been accumulating evidence of a European interaction with Asia in ancient times, in support of an hypothesis that Europeans kick-started Asian, especially Chinese civilisation. Here is some further evidence of interaction. The idea is to assemble material that students of history and archaeology may not encounter in our Asianist, politically correct universities.

 

 

David Comas (et al.) "Trading Genes Along the Silk Road : mtDNA Sequences and the Origin of Central Asia Populations", American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 63, 1998, pp.1824-1838, analysed mtDNA in samples of Kazakh, Vighurs, lowland Kirghiz and highland Kirghiz: "Central Asian mtDNA sequences present features intermediate between European and East Asian sequences, in several parameters - such as the frequencies of certain nucleotides, the levels of nucleotide diversity, mean pairwise differences, and genetic differences". (p.1824)

 

Comas (et al.) stated that the most plausible hypothesis to account for this is "extensive levels of admixture between Europeans and East Asians in central Asia, possibly enhanced during the Silk Road trade and clearly after the Eastern and Western Eurasian human groups had diverged". (p.1824)

 

Contact, thus accounts for the fact that "nucleotide polymorphism in mtDNA sequences in central Asian populations is intermediate between those reported for Europe and those reported for Eastern Asia". (p.1818)

 

Beyond mtDNA evidence, is dental evidence, as outlined in Christine Lee and E. Richard Scott, "Brief Communication: Two-Rooted Lower Canines - A European Trait and Sensitive Indicator of Admixture Across Eurasia", American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol.146, 2011, pp.481-485. Two-rooted lower canines are much more common in Europeans than other races and thus can be used as an indicator to evaluate gene flow between Europeans and other groups. Samples from Europe are found with an average frequency of 10%; in sub-Saharan African populations, the characteristic is unknown and in Asian and Asian-derived populations, the frequency varies from 0.0 to 1.0 percent.

 

Lee and Scott found that the average frequencies of two rooted canines along the western frontiers of China and Mongolia ranged from 0-4%. "These data suggest European-derived populations migrated into western China (Xinjiang Province) and Mongolia (Bayan Olgii Aimag) sometime during the late Bronze Age (1000-400 BCE)". (p.481)

 

Lee and Scott conclude: "Archaeological excavations support the large-scale movement of people into this area during the bronze age (ca 2200 BCE - 400 BCE). Burial artefacts and settlement patterns suggest cultural and technological ties to the Afanasevo culture in Siberia, which in turn is linked archaeologically, linguistically, and genetically with the Indo-European Tocharian populations that appear to have migrated to the Tarim Basin ca 4,000 years ago". (p.483)

 

 

Stay tuned as further evidence of European influence on ancient Asian and Chinese culture is presented at the Crossroads site.